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  1. And it could well fail before ratification
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La Grande Case dispose de plusieurs ouvertures, souvent au nombre de quatre. Nord-Ouest, Departement de la Mezam. La plupart de ces maisons sont contruites en briques de terre cuites avec des toitures en tuiles. N2 10 - 2 45 et E9 50 - 10 48 Date de soumission: Kotoko, descendants des Sao, Mouloui, Barma, Boulalan, babalia….

Parmi les ligneux on cite: Acacia raddiana , Maerua crassifolia , Balanites aegyptiaca , Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Caparis decidua, Ziziphus mauritiana, C ombretum glutinosum, scerocarpa birreaet Acacia spp. C ymbopogon proximus , Aristida funiculata , A ristida palluda , Panicum laetum , Panicum turgidum , Eragrostis tremula et Shoenefeldia gracilis. Extreme-nord, Logone et Chari, village Goulfey. Ils couvrent une superficie de Mayo- Rey, Arrondissement de Rey-Bouba. N08 21 - 09 00 et E14 25 - 14 55 Date de soumission: N4 54 - 5 et E8 42 - 9 16 Date de soumission: N10 50 - 11 40 et E14 20 00 Date de soumission: Hyparrhenia rufa, Sorghum arundinaceum, Echinochloa pyramidalis, Penisetum ramosum, Vetiveria nigritana et Oriza longistaminata.

La savane arbustive sur planosols au centre du parc 2. Fako, Menoua, Mifi, Bamenda, Wouri. La grotte de Mbilla. The Park is comprised of a range of ecotypes. Its topography ranges from m to m as. It is drained by numerous streams and rivers. TNP is rich in biodiversity and has a high endemism. It is host to: The forest and vegetation formations of the Takamanda National Park are rich and diverse, qualities that are enhanced by the preponderance of micro habitat types with a unique representation of a sharp gradation from lowland forest to montane highland forest that show an associated floristic variations.

The vegetation of the Takamanda National Park can be classified Sunderland et al, a into five main habitat types;. Tigray is home to rock-hewn churches, believed to represent the single largest group of rock-hewn architecture in the world.

And it could well fail before ratification

Eighty of these churches, dating from the 5 th to 14 th centuries AD, as well as a small number of masonry-and-timber built churches, which include some of the oldest timber structures surviving worldwide 6 th — 10 th centuries AD , are located in the Sacred Landscapes of Tigray. The proposed serial nomination consists of three separate zones containing groups of rock-hewn churches in spectacular natural landscapes located in Mehakelegnaw and Misraqawi Zones inthe eastern half of Tigray Regional State, in the north of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

The Sacred Landscape of Gheraltalies to the north west, consisting of a mountain massif to the west of Wukro, north of the regional capital of Mekele. The Sacred Landscape of Tembienis a mountain range lying to the south east of Gheralta and to the east of Mekele. The Sacred Landscape of Atsbi is an upland area to the east of Gheralta, on the eastern edge of the Ethiopian highlands, with flat-topped mountainsor hills and deep-incised valleys. A significant number of churches have wall-paintings and many retain treasures in the form of manuscripts, portable paintings and liturgical objects, including examples which have survived from the Middle Ages, especially in churches which form the core of living monasteries.

The rock-hewn churches in these three areas are almost entirely sculpted into Ambaradam Formation, Adigrat Sandstone and Enticho Sandstone. The physiography or landscape is an intimate expression of the underlying geology. The spectacular landscape of Geralta, Tembien and Atsbi. Understanding the geology and associated long and short-term processes is a prerequisite for future monitoring and conservation of the monuments.

The Gheralta Sacred Landscape, which consists of the Gheralta ridge and the twenty-eight rock-hewn monuments carved into the sandstone, represents the first phase of the serial nomination. The geology of the Gheralta area is characterized by Precambrian rocks, Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks, Middle Jurassic—Triassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The churches in this locality area are all carved into Enticho Sandstone or into Adigrat Sandstone. Enticho and EdagaArbi are glacial in origin shale and tillites.

Adigratsandstone, which overlies these glacial origin rocks, is typically yellowish to pink, fine to medium grained, well sorted and cross-bedding and quartz rich. In places Adigratsandstone is calcareous especially toward the top and near contact with the overlying carbonate rich units. Gheralta is a long ridge, with sides which are near vertical. These steep pillars are the last remnants of a thick sandstone plateau, now mostly eroded away, which were deposited in the Paleozoic as sediments washing out from large Gondwanan glaciers and they are found directly on top of folded, metamorphosed Precambrian gneisses.

In places, basalt lava has pushed through a crack in the sandstone, forming a narrow intrusion, or dyke, which has then eroded away more rapidly than the sandstone, resulting in narrow passageways which lead into the sandstone massifs and act as informal stairways to a number of the churches. The rock-hewn monuments of Gheralta, which are located at altitudes varying from approx.

The monuments were excavated at different dates over a period of 1, years, from the 5 th — 14 th centuries AD. Located in a spectacular landscape of great scenic beauty, access to many of them is extremely challenging and in some cases involves climbing vertical surfaces utilizing handholds and footholds cut into the rock, or by walking along a narrow ledge with a vertical drop below. Some of the earliest may originally have been tombs excavated during the period of the Axumite empire ended c.

The structures hewn out of the rock to serve as churches from the firsts have plans with columns, arches, beams and domes which imitate conventional masonry and timber construction. Many of the churches contain wall-paintings, dating from 13 th — 19 th centuries. All churches remain in use, performing their original religious function, and many contain religious treasures in the form of manuscripts, portable paintings, crosses, crowns, sistra, drums and other religious artefacts.

The Tembien Sacred Landscape incorporates twenty-eight rock-hewn churches. The geology of the Tembien area is characterized by Precambrian basement rocks, Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks, Middle Jurassic—Triassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and Cenozoic basalts. Among the Precambrian rocks, the Tembien Group limestone, slates, and dolomites and the Tsaliet Group Meta-volcanics are predominant. Generally in Tigray low-grade, meta-volcanic, meta-volcanoclastic, and meta-sedimentary rocks are intruded by syn- to late-tectonic granitoids and the meta-volcanic and meta-volcanoclastic rocks together forming the largest unit.

The rock-hewn churches in these localities are sculpted into Enticho sandstone, Adigrat sandstone and Amba Aradam sandstone. Enticho sandstone is characterized by white, medium-grained sandstone, coarsely cross—bedded with silty beds and some iron rich layers. Adigrat sandstone in the Tembien area is soft and friable, with variegated colour yellowish to reddish, and pinkish and generally well-sorted. Toward the upper part of the unit it is generally whitish, friable, and well sorted.

Amba Aradam sandstone is consisting of conglomerates, shale and its colour varies from whitish, purple, reddish to yellowish. It is generally coarse grained, friable to compact in strength. TembienDega, the highlands, consists of several mountain chains, cut by high passes which allow travel through the area. Erosion has formed spectacular rock bastions and pinnacles of various shapes and colours.

The rock-hewn churches date principally to the second half of the Middle Ages and are a product of the monastic renaissance which characterised the period. In contrast to the Gheralta and Atstbi Sacred Landscapes, the rock-hewn churches of Tembien therefore form a coherent group in terms of age and function.

This is reflected in the fact that many of the churches belong to living monasteries. They are located at altitudes of approx. Cycles of wall-paintings are few in number, but a notable exception if the church of Abba Yohanni, which contains both 15 th -century wall-paintings and an impressive later series in the first Gondar style, dating to the early 17 th century.

Many of the churches possess important ecclesiastical treasures, especially manuscripts and crosses, including significant examples of medieval date. The Atsbi Sacred Landscape lies at the eastern edge of the highland plateau, at the top of the escarpment which falls away into the Danakil Depression, parts of which lie below sea level.

The area includes twenty-four rock-hewn churches, as well as three very early timber-and-masonry built churches. Atsbi Horst is composed of Precambrian rocks e. The sandstone in the Atsbi area forms Mesa and butte into which most of the churches are sculpted. Steep-sided ambas flat-topped mountains rise out of the highland plateau and it is in their cliff faces that the rock-hewn churches are generally to be found, located at altitudes of between approx. Rock-hewn churches include the large, five-bay, basilica of Mikael Amba, of 8 th — 10 th centuries AD, which incorporates important early woodwork dating to the original excavation of the church.

The church of Debra Selam Mikael is a cave church of timber-and-masonry construction with the upper parts and the rear wall carved out of the solid rock, and so is partially rock-hewn. TcherqosAgabo is a small timber-and-masonry church built against a rock overhang. Zarema Giyorgis is a free-standing-built structure. These three churches are amongst the oldest in Ethiopia and are amongst the oldest timber structures in the world, dating between the 6 th and 10 th centuries AD. Monastery churches in Atsbicontain many treasures.

The landscape consists of Boma and Badingilo National Parks on either sides of a large expanse of savannah habitats. To the west lies Badingilo 8,km 2 and to the east is Boma 19,km 2. These are connected by an unprotected corridor that allows the wildlife to range between the two protected areas. Various White Nile tributaries drain northwards through the landscape, including the Kinyeti, Lotilla and Kengen, all of which flow into the Pibor River that drains into the Sobat River.

The north of Boma National Park contains the Juom swamps that has various permanent pools and forms an extensive flooded grassland during the wet season. The grasslands and plains are dominated by Hyparrhenia, Sporobolus, Pennisetum and Echinochloa grass species. Various woodlands consist of Combretum, Balanites and Acacia species. The soils are mostly black-cotton, which are rich in nutrients and have a high clay content.

During the wet season, seasonal flooding of these grasslands creates vast flooded areas. Its defining characteristic is the annual white-eared kob migration, a natural spectacle of approximately 1 million animals moving in mega-herds, consisting of thousands of individuals, between Boma and Badingilo National Parks. This is the second largest animal migration in the world.

There are also a number of other important savannah species found within the landscape, including Rothschilds giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi Endangered , African elephant Loxodonta africana Vulnerable , white-eared kob Kobus kob thomasi Least Concern , Mongalla gazelle Eudorcas albonotata Least Concern, Endemic , bohor reedbuck Redunca redunca Least Concern , tiang Damaliscus lunatus tiang Vulnerable , Beisa oryx Oryx b.

Situated km from the capital Juba and 70 km from the border of the Central African Republic, it is an area occupied by three ethnic groups: Balanda, Baya and Zande. He established a large powerful Zariba [1] at Deim Zubeir named after him for the slaveraids. In , Zubeir entered into alliance with the Baggara Arabs for safe passage of his slave-caravans through their territory to Kordofan. With an armed band of not less than a thousand men at his command, Zubeir created an empire whose raids in slaves reached probably as many as slaves in a single year.

By the slave trade reached its peak in Southern Sudan and the African population there was on the threshold of extinction. In the opinion of Joseph Natterer, an Austrian consul in Khartoum, "there are no longer merchants but only robbers and slavers on the White Nile". Zubeir Rahma constructed a trench and a fortification where slaves were kept awaiting to be transported to various destinations along the Nile northwards. The trench was built underground almost four meters deep and three kilometres long; wood and mud were used in the construction. The trench contains rooms used as prisons to confine the slaves, and on its edge is a tree renowned as a hanging place for slaves who attempted to escape from their captors.

The slaves were gathered for the army and to be servants for the regime elites. This happened during the Ottoman period in Sudan up to Although the end of this period saw an abolition of the slave trade, traders continued to practice the slave trade clandestinely. The slave route was clear: This site is also associated with the relationship between Zubeir Rahma and the British colonial authorities.

The British at that time held a lot of respect and gratitude for Zubeir Rahma, as he helped them to administrate the areas. It is not well maintained and needs urgent safeguarding to preserve its importance as a cultural heritage site. The tree that was notorious as the site of slave hangings remains next to the trench. The cave needs to be excavated and the prison rooms restored so that visitors can witness the sites history first hand. Despite the contrasting views between the Sudanese and South Sudanese about the real character of Zubeir Rahma with regards to slave trade activities, the site remains a significant depiction of this painful memory.

The Sudanese considered him as a national hero who fought the colonial forces and established his own state in western Bahr Elghazal, denying his involvement as a slave trader. The South Sudanese, however, emphasise his role as major slave trader and this is supported and recognised in most perspectives local and academic that reflect his role as a slave trader [2] who built a trench in the area in order to facilitate his slave business.

As a confinement area, the way it was constructed and the narratives about the punishment related to it for those slaves who tried to escape clearly indicate the presence or existence of slavery activities in the area currently known as Deim Zubeir. The Sudd wetland, with an estimated area of approximately 57, km 2 represents one of the largest freshwater ecosystems in the world. The extent of the Sudd wetlands is highly variable; it depends largely on the seasons and years respectively. It is sustained by the flow of the White Nile or Bahr el Jebel from Lake Victoria in Uganda, in addition to rainfall runoff from its surrounding areas.

The White Nile dissipates northwards from Juba across a shallow depression to produce a network of channels, lagoons and inundated areas, which harness the nutrients of the underlying clay soils. These habitats exhibit strong environmental gradients with pronounced short and long-term variations in biomass production and distribution. It is internationally recognised for its unique ecological attributes that include various endangered mammalian species, antelope migrations, millions of Palaearctic migratory birds and large fish populations.

Notable wildlife species include the African elephants Loxodonta africana , Nile lechwe Kobus megaceros endemic to South Sudan, tiang migration Damaliscus lunatus tiang , white-eared kob migration Kobus kob thomasi , buffalo Syncerus caffer , and bird species include the shoebill Balaeniceps rex. A large number of inter-African bird migrants also rely on the Sudd and surrounding habitats as a dry season refuge.

The Sudd has rich and abundant fish populations, a response to the favourable environmental conditions for recruitment and survival offered by its mosaic of habitat types. Key aquatic habitats range from open water and riverine to lacustrine and palustrine, which offer ideal spawning, rearing, growing, feeding and survival grounds for over a hundred species of fish. These habitats are largely intact and largely unaffected by industrial development and include; 31 Siluroids, 16 Characoids, 14 Cyprinoids, 11 Momyrids, 8 Cichlids, and 7 Cyprinodonotids of fish communities.

There are also eight 8 endemic Nile dwarf fish species found in the Sudd wetland, which are Cromeria nilotica, Nannaethiops unitaeniatus, Barbus stigmatopygus, Chelaethiops bibie, Andersonia leptura, Aplocheilichthys loati, Epiplatys marnoi and Electris nanus. The culture and society of the approximately 1 million people inhabiting the Sudd wetland region are closely linked to its ecological functioning.

These groups have developed traditions that have allowed them to adapt to the inundated and seasonally variable conditions across the Sudd through a combination of nomadic agro-pastoralism, non-timber forest product collection and fishing. Specific practices include the seasonal construction of settlements on small islands in flooded areas, and traditional hunting and fishing techniques. The cultural groups living within the Sudd region also maintain beliefs and practices that serve to support and conserve the environment they live in.

For example, the cultural beliefs of the Shilluk community living within the Sudd region are an important aspect in the preservation of the Nile lechwe antelope species endemic to South Sudan as they consider killing of the animal species as taboo, and this of course helps in their conservation and sustainable use. It is therefore valuable to support many of the cultural practices of the communities living in the Sudd as these are closely intertwined with the natural elements and preserving them also creates and maintains an awareness of past and traditional knowledge in the general public.

N13 00 W4 27 Date de soumission: N13 34 - 16 51 O2 28 -5 45 Date de soumission: Provinces de Bengo, Kwanza Norte e Malanje. S15 09 E19 10 Date de soumission: Nimba County, Yarmen and Gbalay-geh District. Also adding credit to the site is its biodiversity potential, form, and array of endemic and threatened fauna.

The site is currently considered to be the richest forest domain of the country; particularly, in terms of rarity and endemic species composition. The Liberian side has also been recorded as a very important site for Papilio antimachus — the Giant African Swallowtail butterfly. Around butterfly species have been listed for Nimba Mountains and surrounding forests, whereof species occur in the core area ENNR. From a global conservation perspective, the Nimba Range is among the most important areas in Africa, with numerous endemic species, many of them globally threatened.

The importance of this area is recognized by its inclusion in national and international conservation priority schemes such as: There 83 reptile species recorded for Mt. Several species of butterflies are new to science or endemic to the Liberian side of the Nimba Mountains as recorded during some field surveys at the protected area. At Coldwater, an area in the Southwest ENNR, many lowland forest specialists were found exclusively in this area including 2 un-described species.

Providence Island, formerly known as Dozoa, is located approximately meters away from the bar mouth of the Atlantic Ocean. The Island has both hydrological and geophysical characteristics that define the western fling of the Mesurado or Doo River. The island has sparsely distributed mangrove swamps at its south-eastern end.

Providence Island, from an aerial view present a geophysical shape of a guitar with a land mass of Providence Island is a former trade post and the first arrival point of freed American Slaves. The rusted heavy steel bar of the dock are partly buried into the Mesurado river today. In addition to these elements, is the oldest cotton tree, years according to history of the State. In the context of contemporary history, a metal tree exists at the site symbolizing the need for peace after many years of internal strife in Liberia.

The site is of historical and cultural significance in the history of West Africa as the Island was one of the first places freed slaves landed on January 1, Before the arrival of first batch of freed slaves from America, Providence Island was a major trade post for both Portuguese and ethnics of the land. N14 05 00 O8 53 00 Date de soumission: Sur les rives du Bafing, on peut y voir les hippopotames et dans les mares du parc des crocodiles sont visibles par endroit.

Il traverse trois communes rurales du Cercle de Kayes: Environ treize 13 villages peuplent les abords du lac. Karas and Erongo Regions. The ecosystem is characterized by high productivity and defined by the Benguela upwelling associated with the eastern boundary current Benguela Current of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre. Inshore of the Benguela Current proper, the south easterly winds cause coastal upwelling, forming the Benguela Upwelling System. A marine protected area in Namibia along the southern Namibian coast and adjacent islands is associated with this upwelling area.

The upwelling of cold, nutrient rich waters from around — m depth results in high rates of phytoplankton growth that sustains the Benguela ecosystem. The intensity of upwelling events is determined by wind strength. Pulses of upwelling induce biological production. Phytoplankton growth in the Benguela system requires a period of upwelling followed by a period of stratification and relatively calm waters.

It is estimated that the annual new production in the Benguela system is 4. Mean annual primary productivity of 1. The Benguela Upwelling System is one of five wind-driven coastal upwelling systems in the global oceans. The Benguela Marine Ecosystem is an important center of marine biodiversity and is one of the most productive ocean areas in the world due to its distinctive bathymetry, hydrography, chemistry and trophodynamics. The system supports rich fish stocks of sardines, anchovies, horse mackerel, other small pelagic fish as well as zooplankton and crustaceans.

The most abundant fishes in the Benguela system are pilchards Sardinops ocelata , which has been intensely overfished by foreign fishing fleets during the s to s, and anchovies Engraulis capensis. These species in turn supports a large biomass of larger fish, sea birds and marine mammals. These various seabirds breed on the islands from where they range tens of kilometres out to sea before returning. Mercury Island alone, which is ca.

Early in the 20th century annual harvesting of the bird guano accumulating at nesting sites on the offshore islands started that continue to this day, currently managed to ensure sustainability and to prevent disturbing the sea birds during their breeding seasons.

The Third Industrial Revolution: A Radical New Sharing Economy

At that time a novel and globally unique guano harvesting industry was pioneered by building wooden platforms at suitable locations near Swakopmund and Cape Cross in Namibia. These platforms provide protected breeding areas for thousands of seabirds, principally cormorants, which are inaccessible to land-based predators such as jackals, brown hyenas and seals. The thick accumulations of bird guano are harvested after the end of the breeding season and marketed world-wide as organic fertilizer. The Benguela Current also plays a significant role in global ocean and climate processes through heat transfer from the Southern Hemisphere to the Northern Hemisphere.

In the regional context the upwelling area imposes extreme aridity over the adjacent continental areas. The Benguela Current developed around 11 million years ago with the expansion of Antarctic ice sheets and changes in global circulation caused by tectonic processes such as the emergence of the Panama Isthmus and rise of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. The upwelling system was fully established around million years ago, imposing the atmospheric conditions that resulted in the Namib Desert, the Karoo arid shrublands and the Succulent Karoo Ecosystem.

Kunene and Oshikoto Regions. The km 2 Etosha Pan is a huge, pristine oval-shaped salt pan situated in northern Namibia. It is the terminal playa of the Cuvelai drainage system in the lowest part of the Ovambo Basin at an elevation between 1, to 1, m above sea level. The pan is most of the time a dry, saline desert. During the hot dry season of the austral spring and early summer, numerous dust devils with high winds may form and move over the pan, sucking up small debris or blasting larger objects with salty sand.

The only large animal to regularly inhabit the pan floor itself is ostriches that nest several kilometres into the pan where few predators will follow. In contrast, many species of large game are found around its edges as they rest on the bare pan floor. Water is found only in numerous spring-fed waterholes on the pan margin. Etosha Pan is subject to occasional partial flooding during the rainy season.

During such years floodwater transforms the pan into a shallow lake holding large sheets of water, usually not exceeding one meter in depth. The water in the pan is, however, unfit for animal consumption as the salt content is often double that of sea water. On such occasions large flocks of flamingos, pelicans, gulls and other waterbirds migrate to the pan. Both greater and lesser flamingos, and even white pelicans, may then breed at Etosha. The pan formed in Pliocene times when the upper Cunene River and possibly the Cubango River currently part of the Okavango system terminated as an interior lake and swamp system, similar to the Okavango Delta in Botswana today.

The Etosha Pan is a remnant of that endorrheic lake system. Wind erosion removed most of the river-end deposits and deepened the depression. During the drying and deflation process, the soil of the pan became mineral-rich and brackish. The pH is high 8. The soils surrounding the pan are shallow, brackish and alkaline, mostly cemented by calcrete. The pan margin is fringed with halophytic vegetation consisting principally of various grasses and shrubs. Open grasslands rise gradually away from the pan and sustain a wide variety of perennial and annual grasses and shrubs.

The grasslands and shrubland surrounding the pan are renowned for supporting vast herds of giraffes, zebras, blue wildebeest, oryxes, springbok, ostriches and their accompanying large predators, as well as one of the largest and healthiest populations of black rhino in the world. The area also supports a considerable diversity of smaller mammals, birds, snakes, lizards, invertebrates, etc.

The majestic scenes of elephant herds refreshing themselves at the natural springs along the margins of the pan, backdropped against the shimmering-white expanses of the pan itself and the spectacular diversity of other large mammals, makes it one of the most popular game parks in Africa. Kavango East and Zambezi Regions. This delta system in Kalahari Desert comprises permanent marshlands and seasonally flooded plains.

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It is one of the very few major interior delta systems that do not flow into a sea or ocean, with a wetland system that is almost intact. One of the unique characteristics of the property is the progressive annual flooding from the River Okavango that progress through the system to reach its peak in Botswana during the dry season, with the result that the native plants and animals have synchronized their biological cycles with these seasonal rains and floods. The biota has uniquely adapted their growth and reproductive behaviour, particularly the flooded grassland biota, to be timed with the arrival of floodwater.

It is an exceptional example of the interaction between climatic, hydrological and biological processes. This situation changed rapidly from the 18th century onwards with the expansion of European colonizers and ensuing conflicts over land. These groups themselves are sub-divided into several distinct language groups and self-identifying communities, e. Kung, the Naro, the Khwe and the! The Succulent Karoo biome is an internationally recognized biodiversity hotspot, and is the world's only arid hotspot.

The km 2 biome extends from the south-west through the north-western areas of South Africa and into southern Namibia. N15 17 W23 46 Date de soumission: N14 49 - N14 54 W - W24 44 Date de soumission: Brava, ville de Nova Sintra. N14 55 15 W23 31 30 Date de soumission: Santiago, ville de Praia. N16 86 - N16 51 W24 85 - W24 51 Date de soumission: La superficie totale du complexe est de ,6 km2, couvrant la superficie des terres, la zone marine et la zone tampon. N15 03 - N14 48 W24 16 W24 30 Date de soumission: Sao Filipe ha: Ceci explique le fait qu'une grande partie de la population a une couleur de peau claire, les yeux bleus et les cheveux blonds.

S18 55 20 E47 31 58 Date de soumission: N13 44 31 W15 31 01 Date de soumission: Janjangbureh Island, Central River Region. The historic quarter of the Island of Janjangbureh, Historic Georgetown, is being proposed for inclusion in the tentative list as an extension of the Kunta Kinteh Island and Related Sites inscription.

The area continues to evoke the spirit of the island in its heydays. Some of the buildings in the historic quarter which was the European settlement are in a reasonable state of conservation,especially those that were acquired by the local inhabitants and have been converted to new uses such as accommodation and bar and restaurant facilities to serve the growing tourist industry.

Others have been converted to government offices. Many are rapidly decaying or are merely ruins with upstanding walls. The area around the Regional Governor's house was the British settlement and seat of government with several period buildings still standing in their original glory. The building has been renovated to enable it to continue its function as the residence and office of the most important government official in the region.

In close proximity are two colonial relics, the Post Office which also doubled as telephone exchange facility and the Deputy Governor's house. Both building are well preserved, maintained and continue to be in use. The street was mainly occupied by the trading firms of the colonial period. Most of their houses which doubled as shops can still be identified but are in various stages of decay. The streetscape remains virtually unchanged and continues to evoke the spirit of the time when trading was vibrant in this community.

A wooden house on this street testifies to the presence of the community of Liberated Africans who were sent in from Freetown in to plug the skills gap that was apparent in the new British settlement. On the same street is the Methodist Church which in its early life served both as church and school,and is regarded as the longest surviving Methodist church that continues to be in use.

One of these buildings,of which only walls remain, appears to be a warehouse with an adjoining wharf inscribed at the bottom with the date still extant. Both buildings are in various stages of decay and remain unused,but continue to gain immense attraction as relics of Georgetown's past. To the west of the settlement is a Christian cemetery where headstones and tombs attest to the numerous colonial administrators, traders, missionaries and liberated Africans who lived and passed away in Georgetown. At the junction of Jackson and Mercer Street is the last remaining colonial metal lamppost on which gas lamps were hung to provide light for the tiny British settlement.

N13 41 24 W14 52 39 Date de soumission: Nianija District,Central River Region. The quarry site is located on a laterite ridge to the east of the Wassu stone circles site. Other shallow cuts and stepped platforms also indicate quarry activity but may also imply natural erosion features. Some partially dressed stones remain in situ but are fractured;which probably led to their abandonment. Another quarry lies to the ESE. From the visible remains in situ,the stones appear to have been removed in blocks, as it occurs naturally and it is then dressed, presumably at the quarry site.

The ridge is littered with broken fragments of stone. The number of quarries does not reflect the magnitude of the Wassu circles and its outliers although present plant growth cover prohibits an accurate assessment of the extent of the quarries. S 34 01 51 69 E 18 25 07 92 Date de soumission: The Cape Winelands is situated in the extreme south-western corner of the African continent in the immediate vicinity of Cape Town, the capital of the Western Cape Province, one of nine provinces of the Republic of South Africa.

Overview of the early development of agriculture and interest in the botanical richness of the Cape of Good Hope: At the onset of globalisation, the Cape of Good Hope was established in as a victualling station for the Dutch East India Company to supply its fleets sailing to and from the East Indies. Fresh water and meat supplies as well as vegetables and fruit were essential to sustain the trading ventures and gardens were laid on. Soon, however, the interest in the botanical and medicinal qualities of the Cape botanical richness triggered interests in the Netherlands and plants, seeds, bulbs and cuttings were regularly supplied to the botanical and medical gardens of cities and private collectors.

The earliest agricultural calendar to guide farming activities at the Cape was compiled early in the 18th century by WA van der Stel, owner of Vergelegen. Overview of the development of the wine industry in the Cape: Together with three soil types - granite, shale and sandstone - the mediterranean climate of the Western Cape, influenced by maritime conditions and mountainous terroir, is viticulturally ideal for growing good grapes. After the small land grants along the Amsel now the Liesbeeck River on the slopes of Table Mountain were made to the first nine Free Burghers in , more vines were planted.

Barely two years later, on 2 February , the first wine was produced at the Cape.

And it could well fail before ratification

By governor Simon van der Stel planted more than , vines in the Constantia valley. These Protestant refugees brought with them the knowledge of viticulture, which helped to promote and advance the economic prosperity of the Cape. From , Constantia regularly exported red and white wines to Europe. When the British took control of the Cape in , the wine trade and brandy production boomed and a dramatic rise in wine export occurred during the first half of the 19th century.

However, by Great Britain and France entered into a trade agreement and the subsequent lowered import tariffs on French wine imported into Britain negatively impacted on Cape wine exports. To make things worse, the phylloxera louse Phylloxera vastatrix created havoc in the Cape winelands from after decimating vineyards in Europe.

After the end of the Second South African War , vineyards were re-established with vines grafted onto imported phylloxera-resistant rootstocks. In , the first South African wine co-operatives were formed in response to the depression in the wine and spirit industry. Regulations for cultivation and prices were established, followed by a quota system to curb over-production. In an American doctor, Jack Winshaw, and a local farmer began producing natural wine.

In the Stellenbosch Farmers' Wineries was registered as a public company, followed in by the establishment of the Distillers Corporation. The dawn of a democratic South African society at the end of the 20th century also heralded the abolishment of the over-controlled wine industry and the introduction of black empowerment initiatives in the wine industry. Development of the Cape vernacular architecture: From the outset, and following the example of the indigenous San hunters and Khoekhoe gatherers , the settlement at the Cape were dependent on the availability of local materials to build shelter.

A limited amount of building materials, such as hard timber and floor tiles, were imported from Madagascar, Mauritius, the East Indies and the Netherlands. Stone was quarried and sun-dried bricks were made to build walls. Indigenous trees in the forests on the slopes of the Cape mountains were felled and hand-sawed into beams, rafters, doors and window frames, while the readily-available reeds restio of the Cape fynbos were used as thatching material for roofs. The Cape limekilns were stacked with seashells from the beaches or, further into the interior, with local limestone to produce lime for building purposes.

Exotic tree species, such as the oak Quercus rubur , bamboo and poplar, were planted on the farms to supplement the shortage of timber for construction purposes. Some of the characteristic elements of the Cape vernacular architecture were established during the visit to the Cape in of a High Commissioner of the DEIC who gave instructions to the then Governor that all new buildings of the Company at the Cape had to be constructed with local stone at least up to window-sill height, had to be plastered and then limewashed to protect it from the notorious Cape winter weather there was not enough timber available at the Cape to produce hard-baked bricks and low walls were to be built to connect buildings and structures to create an enclosed farmstead that resembled a Dutch " hofstede ".

Even the Governor applied these instructions and he added to them the latest mathematical and scientific principles from Europe to personally set out his own estate, Constantia, and at least one outpost of the Company, Vergelegen. It was also here that a wide variety of exotic fruits and vegetables, sourced from all over the globe, were planted as experiments that laid the basis of the commercial agricultural development in South Africa.

By more land grants were allocated to Free Burghers and freed black slaves. Following the prosperity that the 18th century brought to the Cape, farmsteads, originally simple and basic utilitarian, acquired gables - the earliest dated from the midth century. These gables, both front and back gables as well as end gables, were usually decorated with plaster elements. However, two farmsteads stood out as the idealised farmsteads, i. During the latter part of the 18th century, Cape Town was known as "Little Paris".

At the same time sailors, soldiers, craftsmen, labourers and Company officials originating from Europe also set foot at the Cape. Many were skilled craftsmen and women and were instrumental in the development, interpretation and the decorations found on the Cape's vernacular architecture, reflecting the cultural diversity of the artisans, the owners and the stylistic influences assembled from Africa, Europe and Asia. Some farmers had teams of slave artisans specialising in crafts related to the building trade, such as plasterers, thatchers, ironmongers and carpenters. Others were talented cabinetmakers or silversmiths who crafted furniture and utensils that filled the homesteads.

Only a few of these talents are known by name, in most cases Cape vernacular architecture has the anonymous yet individual signatures of individuals who meticulously worked on the elements that make up the whole - sometimes sophisticated, sometimes naive. The Cape vernacular architecture even triggered a Revival Cape Dutch movement during the 20th century throughout Southern Africa.

Much of the documentation related to both the history of the viticulture, the development of a vernacular architecture and slave history is included in the holdings of the Western Cape Archives, which is included in the VOC Archives inscribed in the UNESCO Memory of the World. One of the defining aspects of the dialogue and conflict of civilisations in South Africa and globally is missionary education.

They are located on landscape that had been ravaged by years of wars of dispossession. They produced Southern African leaders who presented a synthesis of Western and African values. The University of Fort Hare is regarded as the melting pot of the African nationalism influencing other African countries in the liberation of the continent.

Governmental buildings, designed by Sir Herbert Baker, with towers and gardens, completed in Apartheid policy of racial separation; forced removal creates area for whites , defiance campaign, efforts of working class, role of youths, reconciliation rainbow nation. These sites demonstrate a particularly brutal form of town planning, and a way of living that has since been overthrown, but whose impact lingers on long after it is gone. This site draws attention to the Non-Racial Fight for Human Rights and Freedom, draws attention to the values contained in the SA Freedom Charter, a document that draws very strongly from global founding documents on Human Rights, which has a very strong emphasis on reconciliation and inclusion.

The values of universal freedom, dialogue continue in this site. Chief Albert Luthuli was probably the first ANC and liberation leader to gain the kind of international stature he gained and is acknowledged as the first African leader to become a Nobel Peace Laureate. His leadership inspired generations of liberation activists and yet he spent most of his later life under house arrest.

His home and now memorial museum houses authentic collections of his times and role in the liberation struggle. His arrest was the catalyst for a series of trials, culminating in the Rivonia Treason Trial that would ultimately see him spend 27 years in prison. Manaye Hall in Pietermaritzburg was the site of the first major attempt to bring together all South African political role players to find a peaceful reconciliation to the conflict.

From the s to mids itbecame the epicentre of low intensity conflict that was aimed to delay the advent of human rights and liberation. This conflict was resolved through negotiation and reconciliation, testified to by diverse sites in the Pietermaritzburg area. This place tells the story of Nelson Mandela and the values that he represented. It hosts documents speeches and photographs that reveal authenticity and integrity to the many events that unfolded in the liberation struggle for South Africa.

One of the sites of the subversion of justice in the service of violating human rights. It became a terrain of struggle where various political trialists indicted the colonial situation, and demonstrated links to the global human rights struggle. Massacre Sites associated with passive resistance and search for human rights and justice. The events at these sites accentuated international attention, accelerated the emergence of UN Resolutions, consolidated the internationalisation of the South African question. These events were clear examples of the violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

While they are evidence of the brutality of the oppressor, courage of the oppressed — they are also reminders of the value of peace, reconciliation and human rights. Defiance; Liberation movement and ideals; human rights — produced 2 Nobel Laureates Tutu and Mandela, and Chief Luthuli once had ties to the same street ;. Reconciliation; Memorial to Youth Activism and struggle for equal rights and access to education, memorial to youth victims of the state violence.

Ideals of human rights and constitutional democracy; principle of restorative justices and reconciliation. Chronicles the journey of evolution of the struggle for human rights, freedom and justice; Celebrating democracy, human rights and reconciliation — the encompassing symbol of the story of South Africa. Freedom Park is situated on Salvokop in Pretoria. Waaihoek site is an important representative of the domestication of international tools of political engagement, the transition to modern political movements with the formation of a National Liberation Movement that sought participation of the excluded in a united South Africa, rather than a reclamation of previous polities.

These sites collectively illustrate the role of traditional African values in democratic and participatory governance. The associated context shaped a leader like Nelson Mandela.

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They also signify the role of youth in achieving positive change. These sites collectively are a powerful symbol of the complex interaction between rural and urban in situations of a migratory labour system. They are one of the metaphors for the relationship of the urban and rural in the evolution of the modern political setup.

These are associated with the Black Consciousness movement which emerged in the s to fight the repressive Apartheid regime after political formations were banned. The killing of Biko drew global attention, consolidated international solidarity and changed the tone, emphasis and focus of the SA human rights and liberation struggle in a big way.

They are sites at which new and alternative engagements with the universal idea of Blackness were developed and demonstrated. S 34 06 29 E 24 23 24 Date de soumission: Debates around the origin of these anatomically modern humans and the modernity of their behaviour are crucial to understanding the history of all modern people. The South African sites; Blombos, Border Cave, Diepkloof, Klasies River, Pinnacle Point and Sibudu Cave have contributed outstanding evidence for palaeoenvironmental conditions via the rich mid to Late Pleistocene African mammal fauna with a number of species now extinct, as well as extensive other palaeoenvironmental data from well-dated stratigraphic horizons.

Evidence in artefacts such as stone tools, in indications of pigment use and hearths has been interpreted as showing the occupants made significant social, behavioral and technical innovations. Blombos has some of the earliest evidence for symbolic behaviour. Klasies River main site, Blombos, Pinnacle Point and other sites provide some of the earliest evidence for the systematic use of marine resources in the last Interglacial. Border Cave and Klasies River have remains of early anatomically modern humans.

As a group, these sites have been vital to our understanding of the origin of anatomically modern humans and their modern cognitive abilities. A recent hypothesis around modern cognitive behaviour has posited these fatty acids as being the primary trigger for the enhanced cognitive development of modern humans, resulting in the unique ability of modern humans to understand and utilise symbols.

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This unique characteristic of modern human behaviour is responsible for language, art and religion. The origins of this ability to think symbolically therefore have global relevance to each of the 7 billion people that currently occupy our planet. The South African coastal record tells the story of how the human species became intertwined with the marine environment and it gives a time depth and clarity unique in the world. The sites were eroded probably in Pliocene times, more than 2 million years ago, by wave action in the cliff face at 18m and 6m above the present sea level.

Unusual geological conditions have allowed the preservation of bone and shell. The extensive shell midden is the largest well preserved evidence for shell fish exploitation in South Africa, if not the world at the Last Interglacial. The bones include skull and post-cranial remains of among the oldest well-dated anatomically modern people, Homo sapiens. These finds demonstrate that modern humans were living at the southern end and probably elsewhere in the African continent at a period considerably earlier than comparable fossils are recorded in other parts of the world. Border Cave is a very large solution cavern overlooking a spectacular drop into Swaziland.

They include a morphologically very significant partial cranium, more modern than the remains from Klasies River. Sibudu has a comprehensive Middle Stone Age record well dated by Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating to between 77, and 38, years ago. This period is seldom represented in such detail in other South African sites and it is therefore a model for the national Middle Stone Age sequence during a significant stage marked by a florescence of material culture that seems to imply complex human cognition.

As a result of the calcretes formed on the cliff top and their alkaline buffering action, all the PP sites have excellent fossil bone preservation, unlike many caves along the Cape coast. Research is based upon finds discovered in a trench that is 16 m across and 3. The deposits consist of burnt and nonburnt organic residues and ash from hearths, ash dumps and burnt bedding. It is estimated that fragments from 25 containers have been found. Eggshell fragments have been found throughout the period of occupation of the cave but those with engraving are found only in several layers within the Howiesons Poort period.

Blombos Cave is situated in a steep cliff, m from the Indian Ocean and The sediments of the cave were well protected as the cave elevation sheltered it from erosion by the high sea level stands during Marine Isotope Stage 5e and Marine Isotope Stage 1. The cave is situated in the calcified sediments of the Tertiary Wankoe Formation, which contributes to the good preservation of faunal and human remains recovered from the site. The Blombos Cave site preserves an extensive record of archaeological evidence in the Middle Stone Age, integral to research on the oldest evidence for modern humans in sub-Saharan Africa and bears a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition which has disappeared.

The symbolic significance of the marine-shell beads and the engraved ochre pieces, taken with the regular manufacture and use of bone tools, finely made bifacial points, and the probable ability to fish, suggests a cognitive-behavioural package not previously associated with Middle Stone Age people and may be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas or with beliefs, of outstanding universal significance. The conceptual ability to source, combine and store substances that enhance technology or social practices represents ability for long-term planning and suggests conceptual and cognitive abilities previously unknown for this time.

This may be considered to be an outstanding example of a technological ensemble which illustrates a significant stage in human history. N11 23 13 E42 46 53 Date de soumission: N11 01 48 E42 51 71 Date de soumission: Elle est de la famille des Bovidae. N 11 10 45 18 E41 47 36 26 Date de soumission: On trouve les gazelles de Pelzeln Gazella dorcas pelzelni autour du lac. N11 41 00 E42 25 00 Date de soumission: N11 48 00 E42 41 00 Date de soumission: N11 36 E43 10 Date de soumission: Commune de Boulaos, Djibouti ville.

En , Djibouti devient le chef-lieu de la colonie. Il est le plus important du pays. N11 13 00 E43 11 00 Date de soumission: N11 24 E42 82 Date de soumission: Sans Soucis, Port Glaud. It is served by the public road Victoria-Sans Souci-Port Glaud which traverses the central mountain chain running from east to west.

The site lies 6 km from the town and it can be reached by vehicle in 20 minutes. The general topography consists of a ridge with a flat summit, which is bordered by steep slopes above the road. The flat zone, is the only one which is equipped covering an area of 0, 75 ha. Its longest dimension is meters from the entrance signpost until the viewing lodge.

This zone is occupied by Venn's Town ruins and by the viewing lodge which are clearly demarcated by the natural change in the topography and by the dense forest vegetation which are found on the steep slopes. The ruins consist mainly of traces of foundations of the 5 buildings which cover a total area of square meters. Certain of the wall elevators are still in place together with the window recess. The buildings were apparently built in lime. It is one of the most historically and culturally meaningful site in Seychelles. Its importance lies not only in the fact that its ruins bear testimony to an important phase in Seychelles history but its location itself, the landscape within which it exists, decidedly well-chosen by the missionaries to set up Venn's Town, is a heritage worth noting.

Venn's Town is a place of unique historical, cultural, aesthetic and ecological value. It is a mystical place nested amongst the dense and unique vegetations of the Morne Seychellois National Park. All Lubans are not [] as brave in initiative as the lion and the leopard, and hence the institution of the cannibal vampire, the human hyenas who feed upon the dead.

These are the cowards of the cult who prowl among the tombs. Up here in the Butembo forest you have a weird old man living in the woods, a solitary and cynic, the human steaks hanging in the smoke of his faggot-fire. This old vampire once upon a time played the lion, and killed brother-man as fair prey, but now he has desecended in the scale: Other cannibals eat the produce of their own vine and fig-tree caught in fair fight, but this old vampire can only haunt the dead. These tomb-haunters are curious in one respect. They, too, sing a dirge of exhumation, a curiously perverse song like the perversity of their?

The idea in this dirge is a conciliating of the supposed dead man? This dirge is uttered in the moonlight with a sepulchral whine, and runs? Va Jika mu Kanwa Panshi va tina Mwashi.? We rescue thee, O corpse, from the cold wet ground, and honour thee with mouth-interment.? His chief sends his two young sons with me,? So there, with the moon hanging overhead like a great Chinese lantern, we have a farewell meeting: The Valomotwa can crawl flat on their bellies year in and year out, under the trunks of trees purposely felled to hoodwink strangers.

Breaking through grass, they walk backwards and restore each blade to its natural position, defying wit of man to know where they have gone. Gunpowder has never reached these simple folks, and the hunting is all done on tiptoe with silent poisoned arrows. They plead that one bang from a gun would be too tell-tale, booming along the valley.

I believe, is not once mentioned. Apparently, I am observing while he is only seeing, for a beam of light in the eye is not charged with thought, is it? Or can it be that he, a landsman, is thinking of this Lake as the murderer of fishermen in their coggly dug-outs, the red sunrise symbolic of the red blood of its victims?

Why is it that, right down from the days of Mother Eve, as soon as a woman arrives at self-consciousness her first thought is of a new dress? In the local homespun she would have been handsome, but now she is horrid. A sprinkling of loud yellow patches on a red ground is her ideal. They despise even fine lace, think it a rag, and call it? Sure what is it only all holes tied together. In the far distance grey Mweru Lake was hoarsely threatening a storm, and the scudding clouds revealed a furtive moon.

There, jammed into the thick aquatic grass, lay our canoes for the morrow, the beach so tangled that we, for the night, were shut into a tight little skerm to save our skins. Shimpauka, one of the right sort, followed her [a lioness; they are hunting] up but lost traces in the tangle, then stupidly let go his best charge at a buck, reloading with only a poor pinch of powder as he presumed he had lost the lion.

Hardly, however, had his gun spoken when he discovered his stupid error. For there, sure enough, and only a dozen paces farther ahead, lay my lady, not nearly dead but merely nursing her broken leg. If she offers battle and she must , then she will fight and fight to the death. One sight I saw there, far from human ken, and never shall I forget it? As far as cold ink can do it, let me tell you what I saw? There, leaping about from tree to tree, exactly like a monkey, was a horrible human being stark naked.

A poor woman this who had lived nearly all her days as an animal [] amongst animals, the bony fingers like talons of a hawk being all the weapons of her forest warfare. The body cunningly coloured like the grey bark of the trees in which she lived, you can scarcely for a moment locate her, until you catch sight of the black eyes gleaming like coals of fire. Then comes a shriek followed by a fierce cataract of what the natives call?

Mafinge akorowe , and off she springs from tree to tree, twisting her face into a grotesque sneer. She has forgotten how to speak with human modulation and can only screech, a literal proof this of the Spanish saying,? Live with wolves and you will learn to howl.?

MS b- 79, LMA: The same idea this as when the Chief, desiring to let me know I was very clever, said, pointing to the solar angle,? Yes, you were born at half-past seven in the morning!? With all our many months? Sitting inside the snug bastions of the Fort, the soldiers bring a pile of faggots, and there we splice the two ends of our East and West cables, comparing notes.

Only representative of his Queen, there he is, day by day, looking off into our wild unknown Interior, two big business-looking revolvers ever lying on his table, and full of forebodings. Gazing moodily over at our terra incognita , little does he guess I am? The nightjar or Caprimulgus europaeus is a migratory bird usually arriving late April or early May. But who said it was four thousand miles to Old England? Mocking at mere mileage, there goes the homely tapping of a woodpecker, each warm-hearted tap!

How like the fresh young Missionary, the first year how neat and trig; the second, how warped and shrunken! Scottish, English, Irish dialect. Station in name and station in nature is such a place, for it forces the preacher to be as stationary as his station: And what if this lightly-come lightly-go negro runs off seeking pastures new? How can the stationary Missionary follow him?

Bustle along, why can? Nora Barnacle told Joyce how, when she was sixteen, Fr. Moran, who was curate to the parish of Rahoon, Galway, put his hand up her dress. The Years of Growth , See g and VI. Jadis Des Yveteaux reprochait am? Des Yveteaux son parablamafla? Mais Pan tout bas s? Because, after having been a draisienne , a bicyclette and I know not what, the bicycle has now found its best form.

The bearing of the claim of Mr. Arthur Barraclough, of the firm of Messrs. Fishing and shooting rights brought the letting value to? The letting was not, as had been claimed, worth? Only four or five mansions in Ireland fetched? One was Muckross Abbey, and another was Castletown, one of the finest residences in the country, with Windows. Magee, the well-known journalist and athlete.

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On the top of b Joyce has written: The reading here is very tentative. Rathgar, Dublin, writing in reference to the Port and Docks Board, says: A proposal to construct a tunnel under the Liffey is at present being considered, which is a matter calling for the fullest publicity. In view of the fact that the river is already spanned by ten bridges and also possesses efficient ferry services, the need of a tunnel is not very obvious; on the other hand, the existence of a tunnel might later on be found to constitute an obstruction to the evolution of Dublin from a ferry station into a port.

Mara, Reaschmogue, Sixmilebridge, who met his death recently under such mysterious circumstances, was exhumed some days ago, and a second inquest held, following a post-mortem by Professor W. Kelly said that death was due to asphyxia, caused by drowning, apparently in peaty water. His sponsors were Mgr. The Poor Servants of the Mother of God? The applicant deposed that on August 31, , a large number of armed men came to hi s house. They wanted his son, who was only 16 years of age, to go on the hills with them, but witness refused to let him go.

She reproached me on several occasions as being cold, and told me quite plainly that she wished my affection, and was determined to win it, if possible. After losing her berth with the financier in Bond Street she became thoroughly unsettled, and begged me to give up everything and go abroad with her. She informed me of her great love and affection for me, but I plainly told her that I could not agree to such a course.

Bungalow on the Crumbles, near Eastbourne. Secretaryship of a function, and she fumed and raved. She suddenly picked up a weapon [? The Secretary informed the meeting that the county medals would be presented on Wednesday, June 4, at Croke Park, at 8 o? He saw the right mudguard strike the boy in the chest and knock him down. The right wheel passed over the boy?

He went straight to the office where he whipped out a revolver and commanded the manager, who was in the shop, to put up his hands. The man stood at the door of the office for about a minute. She could not exactly hear what he said, but she saw the manager and the assistant -manager put up their hands. She saw a s econd man coming down the back entrance steps and take up a position between the back entrance and the office. He shouted to her? Witness stood when she was staring at him.

By the Way [? No important information, however, was elicited but a hole being found bored in the horse. It was sapiently concluded that? According to the OED the use of the word as a noun becomes frequent circa This unit has been entered to the left of j and might be linked to the previous entry by an equal sign. Clari, or the Maid of Milan,? Recent research has revealed evidence that John Howard Payne was not the author of?

Ici la voix de Ren? A ces accents, le fr? Mon jeune ami, les mouvements d? Si tu souffres plus qu? Tu nous as fait parcourir une partie de l? Tu sais que j? Mon enfant, je ne vis plus que par la m? Un vieillard avec ses souvenirs ressemble au ch? On voit par l? ME Mais non encore, mon cher Pr? ME Ainsi la politique n? Brunot, ne rougissaient point d? Simplifions, afin que les primaires n? En somme, il n? Georges Leygue, [ sic , his name is Leygues] ministre de l? Instruction publique, a autoris?

On y voit, par exemple, qu? Leyges est-il un grand? Vaugelas remarque que l? Le ministre aura voulu abolir jusqu? ME A parler franc, j? Leygues voulait seulement qu? Joyce takes the vocal hiatus of Les Soir? A want of grammatical sequence; the passing from one construction to another before the former is completed. A rhetorical figure by which a word agrees syntactically with two or more other words in the same sentence, but has a different sense in relation to each. Here thou, great Anna! The use of a word to refer to two or more words in the same sentence, while qualifying only one of them grammatically.

For example, a masculine adjective applied to masculine and feminine substantives. Mais rappelez-vous encore notre P? Et il cite une? Unir des mots qui ne se sont jamais vus, c? Mais Racine, mais Ch? Funeral from Duleek College Church to-day Friday 1 p. This seems to have been a Catholic organisation in Ireland which in argued the case of censorship in the Freestate. He had been belching for over a year. Joyce seems to have mistranscribed the date of St Kevin?

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Sainte-Beuve raconte - je n? A la Chambre, de r? Alors, ajoute Sainte-Beuve, quelqu? Et de nos jours on crie: Rien de plus attristant. In the Chamber they made from the word r? That was great, but it was not all: And then, adds Sainte-Beuve, somebody has called out: And these days they call for more! Taine, une phrase de Maine de Biran Quand vous avez la colique ou la migraine, vos raisonnements ont moins de clart? When you have colics or migraine, your reasoning is less clear, your attention span isn? Mais qui sont ces gens?


Then the half-literate of all kinds, proud to pretend that they have a culture of some sort; but most of all the snobs: Pretention in other words, Pretention and Pedantry! Les jeunes filles y trouveront un home. Comme on ne parle pas encore commun? Young women will find a home here. Since we do not normally speak English in France, quite a few of the passers-by will have thought that the word home contained a misspelling.

Fr homme means husband. The recent heavy rains had interfered somewhat with the sport, but the gradual subsidence of the waters of the Corrib is making for excellent sport, and it is no uncommon sight? The green drake fly has already risen, and has been followed by the olive quill, the yellow hawk, and the black quill. But as only the Old Law was not a figure of the New, so in to-day? The form used in handing the new bishop his cozier is worthy of note: Receive the staff of the pastoral office that you may be piously fierce in correcting vices, tempering justice with meekness and not neglecting strictness of discipline through love of tranquility.?

By The Way [? Why, how did you get here?? I just blew in from Montana with a bunch of cattle.? Il est tout finesse, patience, courtoisie. Ma voiture croise une autre voiture, qui ralentit et s?? Par distraction, je regarde. Au milieu, un jeune homme, beau comme un acteur; sur sa poitrine, il tient deux femmes qui s? My car passes another, that slows down and chokes in changing speed. Inside, there are three people. In the middle, a young man, handsome as an actor. On his chest he holds two women who kiss each other.

Je tiens par-dessus tout? Quand nous aimons, je lui fais ouvrir des yeux tout grands. Laurence pose sa cape, se penche sur Denyse pour l? See also d , which may have suggested this. Possibly a development of f , but the reading here is uncertain. A sensational case was heard before a special Court at Carrick-on-Shannon when an extensive County Leitrim farmer named Francis Reynolds was charged in custody that on May 13 last, he killed a heifer, the property of a neighbour, Patrick McLoughlin, by administering poison.

McLoughlin on entering found a heifer with its nostrils covered with blue stuff like copper sulphate bluestone , and the animal died an hour later. Bien plus encore, le snobisme, que l? Ballad Poetry of Ireland? This ballad is inserted in the Jacobite Relics of Scotland, but it is unquestionably Irish. It is sung to an old Irish air of the same name An londubh , the Blackbird , and has been in common use all over Munster for a century. Sheehy-Skeffington paid a tribute to the Lord Mayor for the very many acts of a public-sprited character which had distinguished his career in office.

How long are you a cabman?? I have been driving my cab for 52 years in Dublin, and my father was in the business before me. By the sea , hence Armorica, the Latin name of Brittany. That man was the prisoner. I am a police officer. Is that your bag?? At the same time he lifted the bag up and said: I believe it is.? I want to have a look to see what it contains,? I have not got the key.?

Tiny bit, morsel, shred. Julia Collins, Glenafoosha, on the night of the 14th inst. Who would be the most likely person to get Nora Bane back than her brother?? I knew his voice. Do you want Michael back now?? Go on with what you are going on with laughter. You need not ask me that at all. John Wyse in Ulysses also refers to the battle and claims that? We gave our best blood to France and Spain, the wild geese. On en rit, et le mot entra dans la langue vulgaire o? This was joked about and the word was used in the vernacular where it took the meaning that it has today, of?

See also j , e. Elle a beaucoup lu, mais elle n? Le lendemain, on regrettera Paris, ses avenues orn? Mets cette blouse, fit Habib. Tu seras mon aide. Je veux dire que le g? Slang for Garde municipal local police officer. This and the next two entries are in Nora? On Trinity Degree Day June 16 one of the students masqueraded as a window cleaner. In law, to contradict formally. I beg to traverse above statement JJA The Minister of Finance acknowledges receipt of?

I beg the favour of your columns to ventilate a grievance of the working-classes, re the recent re-opening of the Natural History Museum. Previous to the Dail occupation it was open on Sundays from 2 p. At present it is closed on the only day in the week in which it is possible for them to see it with any degree of comfort.? Ils pavent la grande route royale des id?

Do not look down on the grammarians, said Victor Hugo: They repair a language that is constantly broken and assailed by the heavy wagons of prose and eloquence that the newspapers, the press, the bar and the court, parliament send to the four corners of France, and that is, one has to admit, sometimes also assailed, although in a different fashion, by the royal passing of the great writers. They pave the royal highway of ideas.? MS JJA The custom of keeping St. Despite, however, its connection with the Saint [? John that whereas the Church usually celebrates the feasts of her saints on the anniversaries of thir deaths, St.

Elizabeth of Mary, the mother of God. Bonfires are still lit in Germany as part of the Midsummer Eve celebrations associated with the feast of St John. Beltane was the ancient Celtic May-day feast, also celebrated by the lighting of bonfires.